Medieval German IV13a: 1106AD- 1235AD

DBA list:
1x 3Kn (General): Louis I, Duke of Bavaria
4x 3Kn//4Bd
1x 4Cb
2x 4Sp
2x 3Ax or 4Sp or 4Pk
2x 2Ps

Duke Louis I of Bavaria (German: Ludwig I der Kelheimer, Herzog von Bayern, Pfalzgraf bei Rhein) (Kelheim, 23 December 1173 – 15 September 1231 in Kelheim) was the Duke of Bavaria in 1183 and Count Palatine of the Rhine in 1214. He was a son of Otto I and his wife Agnes of Loon.

One of the Wittelsbach family, a German dynasty that ruled Bavaria from 1180 until 1918. The family takes its name from the ancestral castle of Wittelsbach in Upper Bavaria. In 1180 Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I invested Count Otto of Wittelsbach with the much-reduced duchy of Bavaria, of which he had deprived the Guelphic duke, Henry the Lion. In 1214 Otto’s son, Otto II, also received the Rhenish Palatinate. After Otto’s death (1253) the Wittelsbach possessions were divided between an elder branch, which received the Rhenish Palatinate and Western Bavaria, and a younger branch, which received the rest. The Wittelsbachs reached their zenith under Duke Louis III, of the elder branch, who became Holy Roman Emperor Louis IV (reigned 1314–47).

In 1221 Louis participated in the Fifth Crusade and was imprisoned in Egypt. Louis was murdered in 1231 on a bridge in Kelheim. The crime was never solved since the murderer was immediately lynched. Due to the following aversion of the Wittelsbach family the city of Kelheim lost its status as one of the ducal residences. Louis was buried in the crypt of Scheyern Abbey.

The Bavarian dukes of the Wittelsbach house occasionally resided at Munich, and in 1255 Duke Louis II made it his capital, having previously surrounded it with walls and a moat. The town was almost entirely destroyed by fire in 1327, after which the emperor Louis the Bavarian, in recognition of the loyalty of the citizens, rebuilt it very much on the scale it retained down to the beginning of the 19th century.Munich was founded as a customs station for salt trade by the Guelphian Duke Henry the Lion in 1158 and was given the status of town in 1214. From 1255 onwards, Munich became the seat of the Bavarian dukes, electors and kings.

Würzburg is an old town, which became the seat of a bishop as early as 741. In the 10th century the bishops became Prince-bishops, who bore the title of Duke of Franconia (Franken). The arms show the banner of the bishops, albeit in wrong colours; it should be red and white on a blue shield. The arms are known as the arms of the city since the 16th century, but are probably older. The seals of the city until 1570 did not show the arms, but only a castle or fortress with St. Kilian, the patron saint of the city. From 1570 the arms were also used in the seals. The colours are also known since the 16th century.

This arny has family significance for me, as my great-great-great grandfather emigrated to Pittsbugh in the 1840's from this area in Germany. The name Baier was originally spelled "Bayer"...or someone from Bayern, a Bavarian! It's interesting also that my grandfather's middle name was Killian.


Click here to see the army pictures.